Root canal treatment is carried out over two or more appointments.


Before you have root canal treatment, we may take a series of X-rays of the affected tooth. This will allow them to build up a clear picture of the root canal and assess the extent of any damage.


Root canal treatment is usually carried out under local anesthetic (painkilling medication). In some cases, where the tooth has died and is no longer sensitive, it may not be necessary to use a local anesthetic.

Occasionally, teeth may be difficult to anesthetise. In this case Dr. Greiwe can use special local anesthetic techniques to ensure your treatment is not painful.


Dr. Greiwe will first place a sheet of rubber (a rubber dam) around the tooth to ensure the tooth is dry during treatment. This also protects you from swallowing or breathing in any chemicals the dentist uses.

Dr. Greiwe will open your tooth through the crown, the flat part at the top, to access the soft tissue at the center of the tooth (pulp). We will then remove any infected pulp that remains.


After Dr. Greiwe has removed the pulp, they will clean and enlarge the root canal so it can be easily filled. The root canal is usually very narrow, which makes it difficult to fill.

We will use a series of small files to enlarge the canals and make them a regular shape so they can be filled. This part of the treatment may take several hours to complete and may need to be carried out over a number of visits.

Your front incisor and canine teeth (biting teeth) usually have a single root containing one root canal. The premolars and back molar teeth (chewing teeth) have two or three roots, each of which contains either one or two root canals. The more roots a tooth has, the longer the treatment will take to complete.


At your next visit, the temporary filling and medication within the tooth will be removed and the root canal filling will be inserted. This, along with a well-fitting filling, will seal the tooth and prevent re-infection.

Root-filled teeth are more likely to break than healthy unrestored teeth, so your dentist may suggest placing a crown (see below) on the tooth to protect it.

In some cases, a root-filled tooth may darken, particularly if it has died as a result of an injury, such as a knock to the tooth. There are several ways we can treat discoloration, such as whitening the tooth using chemicals.


A crown is a cap that completely covers a real tooth. A crown might be necessary after root canal treatment to prevent the tooth from fracturing.

Crowns can be made from:

  • metal or porcelain (or both)
  • a ceramic material
  • powdered glass

Your tooth needs to be reduced in size and the crown is then used to replace what is removed. Your crown is made using a mold of your teeth to make sure that it is the right shape and size and that it fits your tooth accurately.

When fitting the crown, cement is used to glue the crown to the trimmed-down tooth. If there is only a small amount of tooth left after the root canal treatment, a post can be cemented in the root canal and used to help keep the crown in place.


Root canal treatment is usually successful at saving the tooth and clearing the infection.

One review of a number of studies found that 90% of root-treated teeth survived for 8 to 10 years. The study also found that having a crown fitted to the tooth after root canal treatment was the most important factor for improving tooth survival rates.

If you practice good oral hygiene you should be able to successfully keep the tooth for a long time. The survival of your tooth depends on a number of factors including:

  • how much of the natural tooth remains
  • how well you keep your teeth clean
  • the biting forces on the tooth

However, if an infection does return, the treatment can be repeated. Alternatively, if treatment has already been carried out to a high standard and the infection remains, a small operation to remove the root tip may be carried out to treat the infection.